Physical implementations, from which the most relevant are described in the complementing section about Realization, include:

How to characterize the capability of the hardware?

  • One ansatz is the Quantum Volume [28]:

    “Quantum Volume = \(2^n\)
    where N is the (width=depth) of the largest random square circuit that can be successfully run on a quantum computing system.”

To investigate:

  • Superconductor–semiconductor hybrid-circuit quantum electrodynamics [24]:
    “hybrid ‘super–semi’ quantum systems, which coherently couple superconducting cavities to semiconductor quantum dots”